Vitayard: A crowdsourced Open Research publishing platform

VitayardVitayard is a research-sharing platform of the ‘scavenging’ type, aiming to make the process of disseminating scientific research more open. Is is a completely crowd-sourced platform, where researchers themselves pick up research content (papers and data) from Open Access repositories. Vitayard aims to incorporate not only Open Access but also Open Research into the whole process of publication of scientific research. Over some years now, the push has been towards making the process of dissemination of research more open. Scientists feel the need to have a more efficient model and Vitayard comes in here. It crawls research that is shared through the Open Access Repositories and brings out monthly issues with the selected entries.


As more and more researchers embrace Open practices, irrespective of the influence of any kind of authority and affiliations, a new free world of debate and discussions will truly open up.

In the words of Erasmus, a Latin scholar and a Catholic reformer, ‘To what corner of the world do they not fly, these swarms of new books? It may be that one here and one there contributes something worth knowing, but the very multitude of them is hurtful to scholarship, because it creates a glut, and even in good things, satiety is most harmful…(printers) fill the world with books, not just trifling things (such as I write, perhaps), but stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving, irreligious and seditious books, and the number of them is such that even the valuable publications lose their value.’

Erasmus’s fear pretty much sums up the apprehensions of today’s ‘intellectual elites’ and ‘printing powerhouses’. In todays world too, the Internet has brought about a transformation of the society. This is a tool that can be used for free dissemination of knowledge and of research. However, a few people even today tend to believe that free dissemination of research (that results in free and fair debates and discussions of the works) would bring about a ‘end of the world’ situation for science. They are of the opinion that they ought to have as much control as possible over the dissemination of research works in order to keep the flag of science flying. These handful of people have the audacity to believe that they must be the ‘chosen ones’ to boss over the whole of the scientific community. These are the people who oppose Open Science and Open Knowledge movements.

–What change do we want to make? (A description of what we want to change about the status quo, in the world, your personal vision for this area)

–Vitayard is a research-sharing platform of the ‘scavenging’ type, aiming to make the process of disseminating scientific research more open. Vitayard aims to incorporate not only Open Access but also Open Research into the whole process of publication of scientific research. The researchers themselves choosing researchoutput (alongwith their comments and observations) in a truly democratic way, eliminates the need to spend heavily on the ‘Peer Review’ process. Over some years now, the push has been towards making the process of dissemination of research more open. Scientists feel the need to have a more efficient model and Vitayard comes in here. It crawls research that is shared through the Open Access Repositories and brings out monthly issues with the selected entries.

What do we want to explore? (A description of the innovations or questions we would like to explore)

–Various governments, universities, scientific groups and even publishing houses have been trying to make the world of dissemination of research outputs more open. arxiv is an Open Access repository run by the Cornell University. OpenDepot is another, run by the University of Edinburgh. The Macmillan publishers have let Mark Hahnel to form Figshare. Figshare in particular looks the most promising as it lets scientists to share

all of their research (not only papers, but also research data, including negative reselts). The Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI) is a public statement of principles relating to open access to the research literature. It arose from a conference convened in Budapest by the Open Society Institute on December 1–2, 2001 to promote open access – at the time also known as Free Online Scholarship.

–What we aim at is fast change by using these already existing and vastly successful Open Access repositories as the driving engines. As the Vitayard platform becomes successful in pioneering posititive changes towards a more Open World of knowledge, the future generations will benefit as they will have better access to knowledge than we have. Scientific progress will gain impetus as scientists and researchers will have truly free access to cutting edge research, with a greater chance to collaborate with each other and work together. Citizen Science too will get a boost as more and more people, outside the existing scientific community, have access to all this knowledge and are encouraged to participate in science (the Galaxy Zoo project is one example of how great an impact Citizen Science can have.). Citizen Science will become of greater importance as our knowledge of the universe piles up (for example, the classification of galaxies, nanoparticles, data analysis etc., will require the help of Citizen Scientists). In the next five years, the impact that Vitayard has on the way science is done will be measurable.

What are we going to do to get there? (A description of what we actually plan to do)

–We aim to have more editors ( or free users) on board, who will continuously pick up research items of their choice from the Open Access repositories mentioned earlier. This way, there will be a seamless marriage between such repositories and the new Vitayard system. Once successful, this is sure to disrupt the existing monopoly of the handful of publishing houses over research dissemination and bring about positive change. Scientists and researchers will have free access to the outputs of Vitayard and this way they will have even better chances of collaborating with their peers. Participation of the universities and research concerns will help in making the change faster. The numbers of our editors will not be limited as this would be a completely democratic and crowdsourced process. Besides this, we also plan to launch a research search engine in near future that will crawl the traditional journals and open up their content for the scientific community.


In ONE sentence, tell us about your project to strengthen the Internet for free expression and innovation.

A truly democratic, crowdsourced process for Open Access and Open Research.

 Who will benefit from what you propose? What have you observed that makes you think that?

The research community and the public in general. It will be a great step towards realizing the dream of Open Knowledge for everyone. It is about time that the whole world has Open Access to all research output. We have been beta-testing this idea for some time.

What progress have you made so far?

We have been testing the waters for the last few months and it has been a great learning-curve for us. We have a website and a blog and the largest community of researchers in India, who support Open Access to research.

 What would be a successful outcome for your idea or project?

A success would mean a fruitful marriage of the ‘journal system’ and the ‘open repository system’, resulting in cutting costs that are spent on the ‘peer review’ process severely. It would also mean that a truely democratic process of publishing, crediting, and measuring the impact of research is finally achieved. Anybody (connected to the internet) would be able to have free and complete access to all the research output that is produced around the world.

 Who is on your team, and what are their relevant experiences or skills?

We have die-hard enthusiasts, who have been fighting for Open Access over the years. Researchers themselves are our stakeholders and every single one of them (real ones and not fake ones though) will be an owner.

Direct observation of sub-binomial light

Tim J. Bartley, Gaia Donati, Xian-Min Jin, Animesh Datta, Marco Barbieri, Ian A. Walmsley

Nonclassical states of light are necessary resources for quantum technologies such as cryptography, computation and the definition of metrological standards. Observing signatures of nonclassicality generally requires inferring either the photon number distribution or a quasi-probability distribution indirectly from a set of measurements. Here, we report an experiment in which the nonclassical character of families of quantum states is assessed by direct inspection of the outcomes from a multiplexed photon counter. This scheme does not register the actual photon number distribution; the statistics of the detector clicks alone serve as a witness of nonclassicality, as proposed by Sperling et al. in Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 093601 (2012). Our work paves a way for the practical characterisation of increasingly sophisticated states and detectors.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0229 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0229v2 [quant-ph]

Null Phase Curves and Manifolds in Geometric Phase Theory

S. Chaturvedi, E. Ercolessi, G. Morandi, A. Ibort, G. Marmo, N. Mukunda, R. Simon

Bargmann invariants and null phase curves are known to be important ingredients in understanding the essential nature of the geometric phase in quantum mechanics. Null phase manifolds in quantum-mechanical ray spaces are submanifolds made up entirely of null phase curves, and so are equally important for geometric phase considerations. It is shown that the complete characterization of null phase manifolds involves both the Riemannian metric structure and the symplectic structure of ray space in equal measure, which thus brings together these two aspects in a natural manner.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0206 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0206v1 [quant-ph]

Quantum probes to assess correlations in a composite system

Andrea Smirne, Simone Cialdi, Giorgio Anelli, Matteo G.A. Paris, Bassano Vacchini

We suggest and demonstrate experimentally a strategy to obtain relevant information about a composite system by only performing measurements on a small and easily accessible part of it, which we call quantum probe. We show in particular how quantitative information about the angular correlations of couples of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion is accessed through the study of the trace distance between two polarization states evolved from different initial conditions. After estimating the optimal polarization states to be used as quantum probe, we provide a detailed analysis of the connection between the increase of the trace distance above its initial value and the amount of angular correlations.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0205 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0205v2 [quant-ph]

Entanglement dynamics in finite qudit chain in consistent magnetic field

E. A. Ivanchenko

Based on the Liouville-von Neumann equation, we obtain a closed system of equations for the description of a qutrit or coupled qutrits in an arbitrary, time-dependent, external magnetic field. The dependence of the dynamics on the initial states and the magnetic field modulation is studied analytically and numerically. We compare the relative entanglement measure’s dynamics in bi-qudits with permutation particle symmetry. We find the magnetic field modulation which retains the entanglement in the system of two coupled qutrits. Analytical formulae for the entanglement measures in finite chains from 2 to 6 qutrits or 3 quartits are presented.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0105 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0105v1 [quant-ph]

State reconstruction of a multimode twin beam using photodetection

Jan Perina Jr, Ondrej Haderka, Vaclav Michalek, Martin Hamar

Robust and reliable method for reconstructing quasi-distributions of integrated intensities of twin beams generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion and entangled in photon numbers is suggested. It utilizes the first and second photocount moments and minimizes the declination from experimental photocount histograms. Qualitatively different forms of quasi-distributions for quantum and classical states are suggested in the method. The transition from quantum to classical states caused by an increased detection noise is discussed. Momentum criterion for non-classicality of twin beams is suggested.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0156 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0156v1 [quant-ph]

Synthesis of Multivalued Quantum Logic Circuits by Elementary Gates

Yao-Min Di, Hai-Rui Wei

We propose the generalized controlled X (GCX) gate as the two-qudit elementary gate, and based on Cartan decomposition, we also give the one-qudit elementary gates. Then we discuss the physical implementation of these elementary gates and show that it is feasible with current technology. With these elementary gates many important qudit quantum gates can be synthesized conveniently. We provide efficient methods for the synthesis of various kinds of controlled qudit gates and greatly simplify the synthesis of existing generic multi-valued quantum circuits. Moreover, we generalize the quantum Shannon decomposition (QSD), the most powerful technique for the synthesis of generic qubit circuits, to the qudit case. A comparison of ququart (d=4) circuits and qubit circuits reveals that using ququart circuits may have an advantage over the qubit circuits in the synthesis of quantum circuits.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0056 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0056v1 [quant-ph]

Universal quantum gates for hybrid systems assisted by quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities

Hai-Rui Wei, Fu-Guo Deng

We present some deterministic schemes to construct universal quantum gates, that is, controlled- NOT, three-qubit Toffoli, and Fredkin gates, between flying photon qubits and stationary electron-spin qubits assisted by quantum dots inside double-sided optical microcavities. The control qubit of our gates is encoded on the polarization of the moving single photon and the target qubits are encoded on the confined electron spins in quantum dots inside optical microcavities. Our schemes for these universal quantum gates on a hybrid system have some advantages. First, all the gates are accomplished with the success probability of 100% in principle. Second, our schemes require no additional qubits. Third, the control qubits of the gates are easily manipulated and the target qubits are perfect for storage and processing. Fourth, the gates do not require that the transmission for the uncoupled cavity is balanceable to the reflectance for the coupled cavity, in order to get a high fidelity. Fifth, the devices for the three universal gates work in both the weak coupling and the strong coupling regimes, and they are feasible in experiment.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0046 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0046v2 [quant-ph]

Photonic spatial Bell-state analysis for robust quantum secure direct communication using quantum dot-cavity systems

Bao-Cang Ren, Hai-Rui Wei, Ming Hua, Tao Li, Fu-Guo Deng

Recently, experiments showed that the spatial-mode states of entangled photons are more robust than their polarization-mode states in quantum communications. Here we construct a complete and deterministic protocol for analyzing the spatial Bell states using the interaction between a photon and an electron spin in a charged quantum dot inside a one-side micropillar microcavity. A quantum nondemolition detector (QND) for checking the parity of a two-photon system can be constructed with the giant optical Faraday rotation in this solid state system. With this parity-check QND, we present a complete and deterministic proposal for the analysis of the four spatial-mode Bell states. Moreover, we present a robust two-step quantum secure direct communication protocol based on the spatial-mode Bell states and the photonic spatial Bell-state analysis. Our analysis shows that our BSA proposal works in both the strong and the weak coupling regimes if the side leakage and cavity loss rate is small.

Cite as: arXiv:1302.0045 [quant-ph]
(or arXiv:1302.0045v2 [quant-ph]